Design Rule Check DRC determines whether the layout of a chip satisfies a series of recommended parameters called design rules. Design rules are set of parameters provided by semiconductor manufacturers to the designers, in order to verify the correctness of a mask set. It varies based on semiconductor manufacturing process. These rule set describes certain restrictions in geometry and connectivity to ensure that the design has sufficient margin to take care of any variability in manufacturing process.
Design rule checks are nothing but physical checks of metal width, pitch and spacing requirement for the different layers with respect to different manufacturing process. If we give physical connection to the components without considering the DRC rules, then it will lead to failure of functionality of chip, so all DRC violations has to be cleaned up.
After the completion of physical connection, we check each and every polygon in the design, based on the design rules and reports all the violations. This whole process is called Design Rule Check.
Fig1: Distance of interior facing edge for a single layer. Fig2: Distance of interior facing edge of two layer. Fig3: Distance of exterior facing edge of two layer. Fig4: Distance between inside edge to outside edge. DRC only verifies that the given layout satisfies the design rules provided by the fabrication unit. It does not ensure the functionality of layout. Because of this, idea of LVS is orginated. It contains the layer definition to identify the layers used in layout file and to match it with the location of layer in GDS.
It also contains device structure definitions.
LVS check involves three steps:. LVS check includes following comparisons:. Typical errors which can occur during LVS checks are:. IR Drop Analysis:.
IR Drop can be defined as the voltage drop in metal wires constituting power grids before it reaches the vdd pins of the cells. IR drop occurs when there are cells with high current requirement or high switching regions. IR drop causes voltage drop which in-turn causes the delaying of the cells causing setup and hold violations.
Hold violations cannot be fixed once the chip is fabricated. There are two types of IR drop analysis namely:. Robust power mesh — Initial power grid is made based on static ir analysis due to late availability of switching activity. If there is IR drop due to some of the clustered cells then adding a strip will make the power mesh more robust. De-cap — These are decoupling capacitors which are spread across the high switching region to maintain the voltage.
Spacing — If clock cells are clustered and causing IR drop, then by spacing them apart near to different power rails will reduce the IR drop. While shifting the cell to next power rail, it should be made sure that the power rail is not driving many cells, because adding another cell may give IR drop.
Reducing load — Cells driving more load will be drawing more current. Hence reducing load will reduce IR drop. Downsizing — Cells of smaller size will draw less current. But the transition of cells should not become worse. The number of power switches can be increased to reduce IR drop.If you run LVS and you receive a message like the one below, you have some issues.
Select OK. A debug window should appear. In the debugger, select one of the cell list items and a summary of the issues will appear to the right. A few mismatches are shown, but they could all be flagged form one error in this case, I have forgotten to add a net. You can select each message summary and choose the " Open Tool Often " Rewires " will provide the clearest insight to the problem. If you select an error in the object info column, Zoom will focus the error in the layout and Probe will highlight the error in the schematic view.
The message descriptions are also very useful in identifying the real issue.
Once you think you've fixed the obvious errors, Re-run LVS. You can save your design with the bindkey " F2 ". Once you have successfully fixed any errors and your layout and schematic match, you will receive a single window with the summary. Select " No "; there is no need to view the results of a successful run. Dong S. Ha Debugging with LVS 1. Figure Problems detected. LVS Debug Environment. LVS Debug Environment with summary.
Zoom of the error. Clean LVS run.A layout vs. An LVS tool enables accurate circuit verification because it is able to measure actual device geometries across a full-chip for a complete accounting of physical parameters.
The measured device parameters supply the information for back-annotation to the source schematic and comprehensive data for running simulations. LVS tools are commonly used with parasitic extraction tools for measurement of device stress parameters especially at 40 nm and belowfor electrical rule checking, and to interactively make corrections to reduce error debugging time.
Performance improvements in LVS tools are achieved through hierarchical processing, that is processing a repeated block only once, and hardware scaling, or the ability to divide the LVS job across many CPUs. A graphical environment associated with an LVS tool may provide design-fix suggestions and visual indication of the location of geometrical and electrical violations, such as shorts in the layout. Cross-probing refers to the ability to provide a direct correlation between the physical layout and a SPICE netlist to aid in debugging.
The hierarchical methodology can be enhanced with technology that automatically scans for repeated, common device patterns, even if the patterns are not explicitly defined in the design database. Some tools include a user-defined option when more complex or unique models are needed. At 40 nm and below, foundries define device parameters that are unique to their manufacturing process.
Some of these parameters may be a function of relationships among multiple transistors. The LVS process can be enhanced with a programmable electrical rule checker ERCwhich uses customer-defined electrical rule checks to automate error-prone manual checking.
Page contents originally provided by Mentor Graphics. Multiple chips arranged in a planar or stacked configuration with an interposer for communication. A memory architecture in which memory cells are designed vertically instead of using a traditional floating gate. Next-generation wireless technology with higher data transfer rates, low latency, and able to support more devices.
At newer nodes, more intelligence is required in fill because it can affect timing, signal integrity and require fill for all layers. A collection of approaches for combining chips into packages, resulting in lower power and lower cost.
An approach to software development focusing on continual delivery and flexibility to changing requirements. A way of improving the insulation between various components in a semiconductor by creating empty space. Analog integrated circuits are integrated circuits that make a representation of continuous signals in electrical form. ALE is a next-generation etch technology to selectively and precisely remove targeted materials at the atomic scale.
Also known as Bluetooth 4. Interconnect standard which provides cache coherency for accelerators and memory expansion peripheral devices connecting to processors. CD-SEM, or critical-dimension scanning electron microscope, is a tool for measuring feature dimensions on a photomask.
The design, verification, implementation and test of electronics systems into integrated circuits. The cloud is a collection of servers that run Internet software you can use on your device or computer. The plumbing on chip, among chips and between devices, that sends bits of data and manages that data. Crypto processors are specialized processors that execute cryptographic algorithms within hardware. A method of conserving power in ICs by powering down segments of a chip when they are not in use.
How semiconductors are sorted and tested before and after implementation of the chip in a system. A data center is a physical building or room that houses multiple servers with CPUs for remote data storage and processing. Data processing is when raw data has operands applied to it via a computer or server to process data into another useable form.The Layout Versus Schematic LVS is the class of electronic design automation EDA verification software that determines whether a particular integrated circuit layout corresponds to the original schematic or circuit diagram of the design.
However, it does not guarantee if it really represents the circuit you desire to fabricate. This is where an LVS check is used. The need for such programs was recognized relatively early in the history of ICs, and programs to perform this comparison were written as early as With the advent of digital logic, this was too restrictive, since exactly the same function can be implemented in many different and non-isomorphic ways.
Therefore, LVS has been augmented by formal equivalence checkingwhich checks whether two circuits perform exactly the same function without demanding isomorphism. LVS checking software recognizes the drawn shapes of the layout that represent the electrical components of the circuit, as well as the connections between them.
This netlist is compared by the "LVS" software against a similar schematic or circuit diagram's netlist. In most cases the layout will not pass LVS the first time requiring the layout engineer to examine the LVS software's reports and make changes to the layout. Typical errors encountered during LVS include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An artwork design verification system.
As the design stage progresses and after the fixing of priority goals, it becomes a bottleneck for these design rules to be met. As a rule of thumb to be noted here is to never leave the DRV to be fixed at last stages of the design cycle.
The usual tendency is to fix the DRV's which directly impacts the timing violations on the go and leave the other less harmful violations which has much slack margins to be fixed at the end.
But one major shortcoming at the final stages is that we might end up with more congested database, which limits the DRV fixing. Before getting into the details of DRV's, let's recollect that there is a library file for the standard cells or the building blocks which has the details of the characterizations of these cells. As we are aware, the LUT characterizes the delay of the cells by input transition and output load. The tool will calculate cell delays by interpolating between the input slew and output load given in the LUT.
However, as the operating points shifts further away from the extreme points in LUT, the result becomes more and more inaccurate as tools predicts delays by extrapolating beyond the bound.
So beyond this point, the actual silicon delay and the values predicted by the tool differs largely. Adding to this, the delays calculated by distinctive tools differs as each tools uses different algorithms for delay predictions.
Hence, it is important to avoid extrapolations by all means. To amass this claim, for instance, consider a reg to reg path having hold slack as given:. Max Trans: Violation is reported when the input pin transition of a cell is more than expected value. Usually fixed by:. Swap driver of the violating cell. Reports it whenever this value is exceeded. Big Wire Delays: Wire delay is defined as the time taken from the moment a signal is applied to a net until it reaches the cells on the same net.
This delay is calculated on the basis of resistance and capacitance of the net. If the delay is more than expected value then tool flags a violation for this net. Re-route on higher metal layer Re-route through a less congested area so that the net is more straight Split the wire by inserting buffer Up-size the driver of the net Clock MaxTrans: When cells in clock path has transition more than expected, this violation is reported.
Similar to max trans mentioned above, but this has only violations among cells of clock tree. Clock Cell Delay: When clock cells has a delay greater than the required specification, it may result in higher skew than what is modeled and eventually results in timing fallout. Dangling Nets: Violation reported when the pins input pins of cells are left not being driven. This will cause large undesired short circuit current to be flown indefinitely which will result in overheating of the circuits and may finally end with silicon failure.
Read More.A successful DRC ensures that the layout passes through the rules designed for faultless fabrication. However, it does not guarantee if it really represents the circuit you desire to fabricate. In our case, for an inverter, we really need a tool than can compare the connectivities of our layout with that of the schematic and ensure that it is really a layout for an inverter.
One way Cadence does this is by generating an Hspice netlist file from the layout and comparing it with the netlist for the schematic. This is the essence of the LVS tool. The first step is to extract all the connectivities and parasitic capacitances from your layout design. From the layout view window, choose Extract A window will pop-up. Make sure that the entries are as given below. For the entry in Switch Names, click on Set Switches. Note that, if for some reason, you did not want to extract the parasitic capacitances, you would leave the Switch Names empty.
Finally, click on OK. The beauty of this extraction tool is that Cadence will recognize not only all the connections but also more importantly, if you have designed the layout correctly, it will also recognize all the nmos and pmos transistors.
It will tell you whether the extraction is successful or not. Open the extracted view of the cell in edit mode from the Library Manager window. The extracted view will look something like this:. This shows that the Cadence has recognized that particular portion of the layout to be transistors. Press Shift-F to see the symbols for the active and passive devices appear in the extraction view window. This is just symbolic to associate the portions of the layout with different devices. It does not bear any connectivity information.
The next step is to perform LVS. So, make sure that the nmos and pmos have correct entries in their properties field for W and L. A window should pop-up with a number of LVS options available for you to choose. For our purposes, you should verify that the following 4 items are selected:. From the extracted window, choose LVS A pop-up menu will appear. Type in the Run Directory that you want to run the LVS in, as well as the cell names that you want to run LVS on and all the other fields as shown in the inverter example below.
Just select Form Contents and click OK.LVs means LAyout versus schematic -method to check the correctness of ur layout designed by cross checking with netlist generated from schematic using the tool.
DRC means?? DRC means Design Rules Checker - a tool for verifying the layout with the Physical layout design rules set so as to make sure that none of the rules have been violated. LVS is when the netlist normally synthesized verilog and the physical layout gdsii match connections ie cells and wire connections match the physical layout.
DRC is when the physical layout is checked to make sure that the layout of the part is manufacturable using the process that the foundry is capable of. LVS mean layout versus schematic. What it actually mean is, it compares between the layout.
If any mismatch in the connections it will show errors. Now what is layout.
How to Solve LVS Errors
DRC mean it is just design rules check. It checks complete layout if there are any violations in the layout with respect to the technology files like spacings enclosers,widths,areas,endcaps ete etc it will generate errors. DRC is a tool built into the layout editor.
It is mainly used to detect any design rule violations during and after the mask layout design. LVS mean's layout versus schmetic. DRC mean's design rule check. Post New Answer. Is This Answer Correct? Cross section of an NMOS transistor? What tools did you use?